Bioethics deals with topics such as research and experimentation involving human and animal participants, cloning, stem cell research, genetic testing, medicines that prolong life and nanomedicine and neuroethics. Nanomedicine is the science of molecular nanotechnology, which manipulates human molecules to maintain and improve human health. Neuroethics is the use of neuroimaging technology, such as MRIs, to evaluate and predict certain diseases and capabilities.

Bioethics also covers issues such as self-determination, euthanasia, eugenic sterilization, the individual' right to decide when to decline medical treatment and sustenance, the right to die, abortion issues, and other similar issues.

Bioethical considerations involve complex moral evaluation of when life begins, when and how it should progress and end. Legislation may be necessary to ensure use of these emerging technologies and research data is handled in a responsible manner.